Crop Genebank Knowledge Base

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Terms used on the Crop Genebank Knowledge Base.

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Term Definition
Orthodox seeds

Seeds that can be dried to low moisture content and stored at low temperatures without damage to increase seed longevity.


Characters that are homologous from a speciation event that is identical by descent.


Controlled or natural matings among unrelated individuals. Out-breeding may also refer to a species that has specific barriers to selfing or exhibits such inbreeding depression that inbred individuals never reach maturity. Also called exogamy or cross-breeding. (cf. Inbreeding)


see Allogamy.


Any group used to root a phylogenetic tree in a cladistic analysis which is not a member of the taxon group being studied.


Characters that have arisen as a result of gene duplication.


A non-monophyletic group containing some but not all representatives of a taxon said another way an incomplete group of descendants from one common ancestor with one or more descendants missing.


A set of methods that assumes that the simplest solution is the most likely one. It is used to construct cladograms, and assumes that minimizing the number of character state changes on a tree is the best approximation of phylogenetic history. (see Bayesian analysis, maximum likelihood).

Passport data

Basic information about the origin of an accession such as details recorded at the collecting site pedigree or other relevant information that assists in the identification of an accession.


A living micro-organism such as a virus bacterium or fungus that causes disease in another organism.

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Sources for this glossary: IPGRI Tech. Bulletin 10: Molecular markers for genebank management and Seed handling in genebanks training course
Glossary open source software by M. Brampton

International Agricultural Research Centres who worked together to make this site possible:
Africa Rice Center | Bioversity International | CIAT | CIMMYT | CIP | ICARDA | ICRISAT | IFPRI | IITA | ILRI | IRRI |

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